Overview
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Threatened

Native Speakers Worldwide

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Language Information By Source

A Grammar of Qiang with annotated texts and glossary
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Threatened

Native Speakers Worldwide

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Domains of Use

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Speakers

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Ethnic Population

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Non-monolingual speakers

many

More about speakers

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Year of info

2003

Location and Context

Countries

China

Coordinates

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Location description

Sichuan Province

Government support

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Institutional support

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Speakers’s attitudes

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Standard orthography

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Script (Writing system)

Latin scripts

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Sichuan Province

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Other languages used

Chinese

Domains of other languages

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More on context

"Education in the Qiang areas is all in Chinese, though in recent years there has been a movement to implement bilingual education. Many of the children now can go to school, but the children often have to travel great distances to get to school. They will often live at the school, either for one week at a time, if the school is relatively close, or for months at a time, if it is farther away. Local educators have noticed that even with the opportunity for free education offered by the central government, there has been a continuously high drop-ou rate among children from remote villages. One reason, they believe, is that most of the children from the remote villages cannot cope with the school education because teaching in the schools is all in Chinese an they cannot speak Chinese. The call for a bilingual approach in education mainly refers to the use of spoken Qiang as a medium of instruction in the lower grades alongside Mandarin in order to facilitate the learning of Chinese ... In general, Chinese has been the main language of education and communication with non-Qiang people. The spoken form of Chinese used is the Western Sichuan subdialect of Southwest Mandarin, while the written form used is that of Standard Modern Chinese. The Qiang have been in contact with the Han Chinese for centuries (see Sun 1998). However, in the past, only the men who left the Qiang area to trade or work or had to deal with Han Chinese on a regular basis would learn Chinese. Children below the age of fifteen rarely spoke Chinese, but now with more universal access to Chinese schooling and to TV (which is all in Standard Modern Chinese), even small children in remote villages can speak some Chinese. Now very few Qiang people cannot speak the Qiang language. In many villages by the main roads, and in some whole counties in the east of Aba Prefecture (where contact with the han Chinese has historically been most intense), the entire population is monolingual in Chinese. The tendency toward becoming monolingual in Chinese is becoming more prevalent now than ever before due to strong economic and social pressure to assimilate, and to the popularization of free primary and secondary education in Chinese. The number of fluent Qiang speakers becomes smaller day by day. Qiang is therefore very much an endangered language." (p.5-6)

Vulnerable

Native Speakers Worldwide

70000

Domains of Use

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Ethnic Population

306072

Non-monolingual speakers

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Year of info

2007

Location and Context

Countries

China

Coordinates

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Standard orthography

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Other languages used

Chinese

Domains of other languages

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Vulnerable

Native Speakers Worldwide

57,800

Domains of Use

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Speaker Number Trends

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Speakers

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More about speakers

57,800 (1999), decreasing. 14,000 Mawo dialect, 14,000 Weigu dialect, 11,000 Luhua dialect, 8000 Cimulin dialect, and 9,000 Yadu dialect. 130,000 total for Northern and Southern Qiang languages, including 80,000 as Qiang nationality and 50,000 as Tibetan nationality (1990 J-O. Svantesson). Ethnic population: 306,072 (2000 census),

Year of info

2009

Location and Context

Countries

China

Coordinates

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Location description

North central Sichuan Province, Mao, Songpan, Heishui, Beichuan counties.

Government support

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Other writing systems

North central Sichuan Province, Mao, Songpan, Heishui, Beichuan counties.

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At risk

Native Speakers Worldwide

130000 (including speakers of Northern Qiang and Southern Qiang)

Domains of Use

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Speakers

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Ethnic Population

200000

Non-monolingual speakers

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More about speakers

The given speaker number includes speakers who are ethnic Qiang (80000) and ethnic Tibetan (50000). Around 120000 ethnic Qiang have lost their heritage language(s).

Year of info

2001

Location and Context

Countries

Sichuan Province, China

Coordinates

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Location description

Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture (四川省阿壩藏族羌族自治州)

Government support

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Speakers’s attitudes

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Standard orthography

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Script (Writing system)

Latin scripts

Other writing systems

Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture (四川省阿壩藏族羌族自治州)

More on writing systems

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Native Speakers Worldwide

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Year of info

2005

Location and Context

Countries

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Coordinates

32.0,102.666666667

Location description

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Government support

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Media Resources

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Filter By

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  1. Endangered Languages Catalogue Project. Compiled by research teams at University of Hawai'i Mānoa and Institute for Language Information and Technology (LINGUIST List) at Eastern Michigan University
    2012. "Endangered Languages Catalogue Project. Compiled By Research Teams At University of Hawai'i Mānoa and Institute For Language Information and Technology (LINGUIST List) At Eastern Michigan University."
  2. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 16th Edition (2009)
    Lewis, M. Paul (ed.). 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 16 edn. http://www.ethnologue.com/home.asp. (15 February, 2011.)
    http://www.ethnologue.com/
  3. The World Atlas of Language Structures
    2005. "The World Atlas of Language Structures." edited by Bernard Comrie et al. Oxford University Press.
  4. A Grammar of Qiang with annotated texts and glossary
    LaPolla, Randy J. and Chenglong Huang. 2003. "A Grammar of Qiang with Annotated Texts and Glossary." 31: Mouton de Gruyter.
  5. Qiang
  6. On language of the Qiangic branch in Tibeto-Burman
    Sun, Hongkai. 2001. On language of the Qiangic branch in Tibeto-Burman. Language and Linguistics 2.1:157-181. [in Chinese] URL: http://www.ling.sinica.edu.tw/files/publication/j2001_1_06_7146.pdf
    http://www.ling.sinica.edu.tw/files/publication/j2001_1_06_7146.pdf
  7. East and Southeast Asia
    Bradley, David. 2007. "East and Southeast Asia." In Encyclopedia of the World's Endangered Languages, edited by C. Moseley. 349-424. London & New York: Routledge.
  8. Tibet's minority languages: Diversity and endangerment
    Gerald Roche and Hiroyuki Suzuki. (2017). Tibet's minority languages: Diversity and endangerment. Modern Asian Studies.
    http://www.academia.edu/28138202/Tibets_Minority_Languages_Diversity_and_Endangerment