Overview
Arrow pointing down
Vulnerable

अस्खलित बोलणाऱ्यामूळ भाषकांची संख्या

60,000

वापर होत असलेले क्षेत्र

No data

भाषक संख्या कल

No data

Transmission

No data

Community Members

    No members

Revitalization Programs

No programs

Discussion Forum

    Comments are not currently available for this post.

Language Information By Source

The twelve modern Khoisan languages
Arrow pointing down
Vulnerable

अस्खलित बोलणाऱ्यामूळ भाषकांची संख्या

60,000

वापर होत असलेले क्षेत्र

No data

भाषक संख्या कल

No data

Transmission

No data

भाषक

द्वितीय भाषा बोलणाऱ्यांची आणि शिकणाऱ्यांची संख्या

No data

सेमी-स्पीकर्स (अर्ध-भाषक)

No data

मुले

No data

तरुण प्रौढ

No data

वयस्क प्रौढ

No data

म्हाताऱ्या व्यक्ती

No data

वांशिक लोकसंख्या

No data

Non-monolingual speakers

No data

More about speakers

"Estimates for numbers of speakers range from 90000 to 30000. The 'Atlasi ya Lugha za Tanzania' published by the University of Dar es Salaam in 2009 is somewhere in the middle, with a total of 65935 Sandawe speakers."

Year of info

2011

Location and Context

Countries

Central Tanzania

अक्षांश-रेखांशाचे निर्देशक (कोऑर्डिनेट्स)

-5.342583, 35.562744

ठिकाणांचा तपशील

No data

शासनाचा पाठिंबा

No data

संस्थांचा पाठिंबा

No data

भाषक मनोवृत्ती

No data

Standard orthography

No data

हस्तलेखन (लेखन पद्धती)

No data

स्पर्धक लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफिज्)

No data

लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफी) बद्दल अधिक माहिती

No data

समुदायाकडून वापरल्या जाणाऱ्या इतर भाषा

No data

Domains of other languages

No data

More on context

No data

Vulnerable

अस्खलित बोलणाऱ्यामूळ भाषकांची संख्या

~40,000

वापर होत असलेले क्षेत्र

No data

भाषक संख्या कल

No data

Transmission

No data

भाषक

द्वितीय भाषा बोलणाऱ्यांची आणि शिकणाऱ्यांची संख्या

No data

सेमी-स्पीकर्स (अर्ध-भाषक)

No data

मुले

No data

तरुण प्रौढ

No data

वयस्क प्रौढ

No data

म्हाताऱ्या व्यक्ती

No data

वांशिक लोकसंख्या

40,000

Non-monolingual speakers

Most

More about speakers

"We estimate that there are approximately 40,000 Sandawe. A figure of between 70,000 and 90,000 has also been suggested (Wright et al. 1995:1)."

Year of info

2008

Location and Context

Countries

Tanzania

अक्षांश-रेखांशाचे निर्देशक (कोऑर्डिनेट्स)

No data

ठिकाणांचा तपशील

"The Sandawe people live north of Dodoma in the Kondoa District of central Tanzania. The area populated by the Sandawe is about 50 km in diameter from north to south and from east to west. In addition, a relatively large group of Sandawe lives on the outskirts of Arusha."

शासनाचा पाठिंबा

No data

संस्थांचा पाठिंबा

No data

भाषक मनोवृत्ती

No data

Standard orthography

No data

हस्तलेखन (लेखन पद्धती)

No data

स्पर्धक लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफिज्)

"The Sandawe people live north of Dodoma in the Kondoa District of central Tanzania. The area populated by the Sandawe is about 50 km in diameter from north to south and from east to west. In addition, a relatively large group of Sandawe lives on the outskirts of Arusha."

लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफी) बद्दल अधिक माहिती

No data

समुदायाकडून वापरल्या जाणाऱ्या इतर भाषा

Swahili

Domains of other languages

School; with non-Sandawe

More on context

"Interaction often takes place between the Sandawe and the other ethnic groups living among them, though conversation is normally carried out in Swahili. Some people from other ethnic backgrounds report being able to understand Sandawe, but the language is rarely spoken by non-Sandawe. ... Along the main road through the area where the Sandawe people live (Dodoma – Kwa Mtoro – Singida), most Sandawe also speak Swahili, although the level of proficiency has not been determined. Some of the older people have a very limited understanding of Swahili and do not speak it. In the more remote areas, we have even met teenagers who do not know Swahili. Children attending school, however, are required to learn Swahili and teaching is in Swahili."

Vulnerable

अस्खलित बोलणाऱ्यामूळ भाषकांची संख्या

40,000

वापर होत असलेले क्षेत्र

No data

भाषक संख्या कल

No data

Transmission

No data

भाषक

द्वितीय भाषा बोलणाऱ्यांची आणि शिकणाऱ्यांची संख्या

No data

सेमी-स्पीकर्स (अर्ध-भाषक)

No data

मुले

No data

तरुण प्रौढ

No data

वयस्क प्रौढ

No data

म्हाताऱ्या व्यक्ती

No data

वांशिक लोकसंख्या

No data

Non-monolingual speakers

No data

More about speakers

"Children are still using Sandawe at the moment, and all believed that they would continue to do so in the future"

Year of info

2007

Location and Context

Countries

Kondoa district of central Tanzania

अक्षांश-रेखांशाचे निर्देशक (कोऑर्डिनेट्स)

-5.219511, 35.426788

ठिकाणांचा तपशील

"Taking the village of Kwa Mtoro as the geographical centre of the Sandawe-speaking area, there are three main groups of Sandawe villages, which cluster along three of the four roads leading out of Kwa Mtoro."

शासनाचा पाठिंबा

No data

संस्थांचा पाठिंबा

No data

भाषक मनोवृत्ती

No data

Standard orthography

No data

हस्तलेखन (लेखन पद्धती)

No data

स्पर्धक लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफिज्)

"Taking the village of Kwa Mtoro as the geographical centre of the Sandawe-speaking area, there are three main groups of Sandawe villages, which cluster along three of the four roads leading out of Kwa Mtoro."

लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफी) बद्दल अधिक माहिती

No data

समुदायाकडून वापरल्या जाणाऱ्या इतर भाषा

No data

Domains of other languages

No data

More on context

No data

Vulnerable

अस्खलित बोलणाऱ्यामूळ भाषकांची संख्या

40,000

वापर होत असलेले क्षेत्र

No data

भाषक संख्या कल

No data

Transmission

No data

भाषक

द्वितीय भाषा बोलणाऱ्यांची आणि शिकणाऱ्यांची संख्या

No data

सेमी-स्पीकर्स (अर्ध-भाषक)

No data

मुले

No data

तरुण प्रौढ

No data

वयस्क प्रौढ

No data

म्हाताऱ्या व्यक्ती

No data

वांशिक लोकसंख्या

No data

Non-monolingual speakers

Most

More about speakers

No data

Year of info

2010

Location and Context

Countries

Kondoa district of central Tanzania

अक्षांश-रेखांशाचे निर्देशक (कोऑर्डिनेट्स)

No data

ठिकाणांचा तपशील

No data

शासनाचा पाठिंबा

No data

संस्थांचा पाठिंबा

No data

भाषक मनोवृत्ती

No data

Standard orthography

No data

हस्तलेखन (लेखन पद्धती)

No data

स्पर्धक लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफिज्)

No data

लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफी) बद्दल अधिक माहिती

No data

समुदायाकडून वापरल्या जाणाऱ्या इतर भाषा

Swahili

Domains of other languages

No data

More on context

"Most Sandawe also speak Swahili [conversational fluency]"

Vulnerable

अस्खलित बोलणाऱ्यामूळ भाषकांची संख्या

40,000

वापर होत असलेले क्षेत्र

No data

भाषक संख्या कल

No data

Transmission

No data

भाषक

द्वितीय भाषा बोलणाऱ्यांची आणि शिकणाऱ्यांची संख्या

No data

सेमी-स्पीकर्स (अर्ध-भाषक)

No data

मुले

No data

तरुण प्रौढ

No data

वयस्क प्रौढ

No data

म्हाताऱ्या व्यक्ती

No data

वांशिक लोकसंख्या

No data

Non-monolingual speakers

No data

More about speakers

No data

Year of info

2009

Location and Context

Countries

No data

अक्षांश-रेखांशाचे निर्देशक (कोऑर्डिनेट्स)

No data

ठिकाणांचा तपशील

No data

शासनाचा पाठिंबा

No data

संस्थांचा पाठिंबा

No data

भाषक मनोवृत्ती

No data

Standard orthography

No data

हस्तलेखन (लेखन पद्धती)

No data

स्पर्धक लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफिज्)

No data

लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफी) बद्दल अधिक माहिती

No data

समुदायाकडून वापरल्या जाणाऱ्या इतर भाषा

No data

Domains of other languages

No data

More on context

No data

Vulnerable

अस्खलित बोलणाऱ्यामूळ भाषकांची संख्या

~25,000

वापर होत असलेले क्षेत्र

No data

भाषक संख्या कल

No data

Transmission

No data

भाषक

द्वितीय भाषा बोलणाऱ्यांची आणि शिकणाऱ्यांची संख्या

No data

सेमी-स्पीकर्स (अर्ध-भाषक)

No data

मुले

No data

तरुण प्रौढ

No data

वयस्क प्रौढ

No data

म्हाताऱ्या व्यक्ती

No data

वांशिक लोकसंख्या

No data

Non-monolingual speakers

No data

More about speakers

"...etwa 25.000 Sprecher."

Year of info

1983

Location and Context

Countries

Tanzania

अक्षांश-रेखांशाचे निर्देशक (कोऑर्डिनेट्स)

No data

ठिकाणांचा तपशील

Central Tanzania

शासनाचा पाठिंबा

No data

संस्थांचा पाठिंबा

No data

भाषक मनोवृत्ती

No data

Standard orthography

No data

हस्तलेखन (लेखन पद्धती)

No data

स्पर्धक लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफिज्)

Central Tanzania

लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफी) बद्दल अधिक माहिती

No data

समुदायाकडून वापरल्या जाणाऱ्या इतर भाषा

No data

Domains of other languages

No data

More on context

No data

No data

अस्खलित बोलणाऱ्यामूळ भाषकांची संख्या

No data

वापर होत असलेले क्षेत्र

No data

भाषक संख्या कल

No data

Transmission

No data

भाषक

द्वितीय भाषा बोलणाऱ्यांची आणि शिकणाऱ्यांची संख्या

No data

सेमी-स्पीकर्स (अर्ध-भाषक)

No data

मुले

No data

तरुण प्रौढ

No data

वयस्क प्रौढ

No data

म्हाताऱ्या व्यक्ती

No data

वांशिक लोकसंख्या

No data

Non-monolingual speakers

No data

More about speakers

No data

Year of info

2005

Location and Context

Countries

No data

अक्षांश-रेखांशाचे निर्देशक (कोऑर्डिनेट्स)

-5.0,35.0

ठिकाणांचा तपशील

No data

शासनाचा पाठिंबा

No data

संस्थांचा पाठिंबा

No data

भाषक मनोवृत्ती

No data

Standard orthography

No data

हस्तलेखन (लेखन पद्धती)

No data

स्पर्धक लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफिज्)

No data

लेखनपद्धती (ऑर्थोग्राफी) बद्दल अधिक माहिती

No data

समुदायाकडून वापरल्या जाणाऱ्या इतर भाषा

No data

Domains of other languages

No data

More on context

No data

Media Resources

No resources

No resources

No resources

Filter By

No programs

  1. Word order and focus in the Sandawe irrealis
    Eaton, Helen Catherine. 2001. "Word Order and Focus in the Sandawe Irrealis." In Reading working papers in linguistics, 5: 113-135.
  2. Sandawe stems
    Edward Derek Elderkin. 1998. "Sandawe Stems." In Language, identity and conceptualization among the Khoisan, edited by Mathias Schladt. 15: 13-33. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  3. Predictable nasality before East African clicks
    Elderkin, Edward Derek. 1992. "Predictable Nasality Before East African Clicks." In Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere (AAP), 29: 111-129.
  4. Clause structure and tone in Sandawe
    Elderkin, Edward Derek. 1991. "Clause Structure and Tone in Sandawe." In York papers in linguistics, 15: 93-115.
  5. The significance and origin of the use of pitch in Sandawe
    Elderkin, Edward Derek. 1989. "The Significance and Origin of the Use of Pitch in Sandawe."
  6. Diachronic inferences from basic sentence and noun structure in central Khoisan and Sandawe
    Elderkin, Edward Derek. 1986. "Diachronic Inferences From Basic Sentence and Noun Structure in Central Khoisan and Sandawe." In Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika (SUGIA), 7 , no. 2: 131-156.
  7. Tanzanian and Ugandan isolates
    Elderkin, Edward Derek. 1983. "Tanzanian and Ugandan Isolates." In Nilotic studies: proceedings of the international symposium on languages and history of the Nilotic peoples, Cologne, January 4-6, 1982, edited by Rainer Vossen and Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst. v. 2: 499-521. Dietrich Reimer Verlag.
  8. Proposals on Khoisan reconstruction
    Ehret, Christopher. 1986. "Proposals On Khoisan Reconstruction." In Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika (SUGIA), 7 , no. 2: 105-130.
  9. Ethiopians and East Africans: the problem of contacts
    Ehret, Christopher. 1974. "Ethiopians and East Africans: the Problem of Contacts." 95. East African Publ. House.
  10. Object marking and aspect in Sandawe
    Eaton, Helen Catherine. 2009. "Object Marking and Aspect in Sandawe." In Khoisan languages and linguistics: proceedings of the 2nd international symposium, January 8-12, 2006, Riezlern/Kleinwalsertal, edited by Sonja Ermisch. 67-86. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  11. Focus as a key to the grammar of Sandawe
    Eaton, Helen Catherine. 2005. "Focus As a Key To the Grammar of Sandawe." In Occasional papers in linguistics (OPiL), 1: 9-37.
  12. The grammar of focus in Sandawe
    Eaton, Helen Catherine. 2002. "The Grammar of Focus in Sandawe."
  13. Microtaxonomy: language and blood groups in the African Horn
    Fleming, Harold C. 1979. "Microtaxonomy: Language and Blood Groups in the African Horn." In Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Ethiopian studies, session B, April 13-16, 1978, Chicago, USA, edited by Richard Samuel Hess. 25-49. Univ. of Illinois Press.
  14. Maandishi ya lugha ya Kisandawe: historia yake = The literature of Sandawe: its history
    Duma, Pius Ludoviki. 19xx. "Maandishi Ya Lugha Ya Kisandawe: Historia Yake = The Literature of Sandawe: Its History."
  15. Das grammatische Geschlecht im Nama und Sandawe
    Drexel, Albert. 1929/30. "Das Grammatische Geschlecht Im Nama Und Sandawe." In Bibl. africana, 3: 51-58.
  16. Gliederung der afrikanischen Sprachen [pt. 1]
    Drexel, Albert. 1921/22. "Gliederung Der Afrikanischen Sprachen [pt. 1]." In Anthropos, 16/17: 72-108, map.
  17. Phonological phrasing in Sandawe
    Dobashi, Yoshihito. 2004. "Phonological Phrasing in Sandawe." In Proceedings of the 4th world congress of African linguistics, New Brunswick 2003, edited by Akinbiyi M. Akinlabí and Oluseye Adesola. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  18. Downstep and phonological phrasing in Sandawe
    Dobashi, Yoshihito. 2002. "Downstep and Phonological Phrasing in Sandawe." In Working papers from Cornell Phonetics Laboratory, 14: (?).
  19. Agrement and word order in Sandawe
    Dobashi, Yoshihito. 2001. "Agrement and Word Order in Sandawe." In Cornell working papers in linguistics, 18: (?).
  20. Africa’s verb-final languages
    Dimmendaal, Gerrit Jan. 2007. "Africa’s Verb-final Languages." In A linguistic geography of Africa, edited by Bernd Heine and Derek Nurse. Cambridge Univ. Press.
  21. Der Zug nach Sonjo
    Haas, Rudolf de. 1927. "Der Zug Nach Sonjo." In Im Sattel für Deutsch-Ost: auf Wildpfad und Feindesfährten, Karl Winckler/Brunnen Verlag.
  22. Linguistic survey of the northern Bantu borderland
    Guthrie, Malcolm and Archibald Norman Tucker. 1956. "Linguistic Survey of the Northern Bantu Borderland." v. 1: Oxford Univ. Press; International African Inst. (IAI).
  23. A tribal map of Tanganyika
    Gulliver, Pamela. 1959. "A Tribal Map of Tanganyika." In Tanganyika notes and records, 52: 61-74.
  24. Native plant names [Latin, Kisukuma, Kinyamwezi, Kinyaramba, Kinyaturu, Kirangi, Kitaturu, Kimassai, Kisandawe, Kigogo]
    Cory, Hans [Koritschoner]. 19xx. "Native Plant Names [Latin, Kisukuma, Kinyamwezi, Kinyaramba, Kinyaturu, Kirangi, Kitaturu, Kimassai, Kisandawe, Kigogo]."
  25. Vernacular names of East African mammals [edited by C.F.M. Swynnerton]
    Jackson, C.H.N. 1936. "Vernacular Names of East African Mammals [edited By C.F.M. Swynnerton]." In Transactions of the Royal Entomological Soc. of London, 84: 547-552.
  26. Sandawe
  27. Felsmalereien in Innerafrika (Ein Bilderwerk geschichtlicher und vorgeschichtlicher Kunst)
    Kohl-Larsen, Ludwig and Margit Kohl-Larsen. 1938. "Felsmalereien in Innerafrika (Ein Bilderwerk Geschichtlicher Und Vorgeschichtlicher Kunst)." Strecker & Schröder.
  28. Auf den Spuren des Vormenschen: Forschungen, Fahrten und Erlebnisse ind Deutsch-Ostafrika (Deutsche Afrika-Expedition 1934-1936 und 1937-1939)
    Kohl-Larsen, Ludwig. 1943. "Auf Den Spuren Des Vormenschen: Forschungen, Fahrten Und Erlebnisse Ind Deutsch-Ostafrika (Deutsche Afrika-Expedition 1934-1936 Und 1937-1939)." 2 Bde: Strecker & Schröder.
  29. Bericht über meine Forschungen in Deutsch-Ostafrika (Afrikaexpedition 1934-1936 und 1937-1939) unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Fundstätten fossiler Menschenreste (mit Lichtbilder)
    Kohl-Larsen, Ludwig. 1939. "Bericht Über Meine Forschungen in Deutsch-Ostafrika (Afrikaexpedition 1934-1936 Und 1937-1939) Unter Besonderer Berücksichtigung Der Fundstätten Fossiler Menschenreste (mit Lichtbilder)." In Zeits. für Ethnologie, 71: 417-424.
  30. Neuere Ergebnisse und Hypothesen der Sprachforschung in ihrer Bedeutung für die Geschichte Afrikas
    Köhler, Oswin Reinhold Albin. 1973/74. "Neuere Ergebnisse Und Hypothesen Der Sprachforschung in Ihrer Bedeutung Für Die Geschichte Afrikas." In Paideuma: Mitt. zur Kulturkunde, 19/20: 162-199.
  31. Essai de grammaire et vocabulaire de la langue Sandawe
    Kimmenade, Martin van de. 1954. "Essai De Grammaire Et Vocabulaire De La Langue Sandawe." 120. Anthropos-Inst.
  32. Les sandawe (territoire du Tanganyika, Afrique)
    Kimmenade, Martin van de. 1936. "Les Sandawe (territoire Du Tanganyika, Afrique)." In Anthropos, 31: 395-416.
  33. Martin van de Kimmenades Grammatik und Vokabular der Sandawe-Sprache
    Kähler-Meyer, Emmi. 1954. "Martin Van De Kimmenades Grammatik Und Vokabular Der Sandawe-Sprache." In Anthropos, 49 , no. 1/2: 290-294.
  34. Sandawe-go no shinkou hyougen de no go no gruupu ni tsuite: syukaku setsuji no kousetsu ni kanshite = A word group in the progressive expression of the Sandawe language: concerning the suffixation of a subject marker
    Kagaya, Ryohei. 1994. "Sandawe-go No Shinkou Hyougen De No Go No Gruupu Ni Tsuite: Syukaku Setsuji No Kousetsu Ni Kanshite = A Word Group in the Progressive Expression of the Sandawe Language: Concerning the Suffixation of a Subject Marker." In Journal of Asian and African studies / Ajia Afuriku gengo bunka kenkyu, 46/47: 175-187.
  35. Jiyuu gojun gengo deno gojun seegen: Sandawe-go no baai = Restriction on word order in a free word order language: the case of the Sandawe language
    Kagaya, Ryohei. 1990. "Jiyuu Gojun Gengo Deno Gojun Seegen: Sandawe-go No Baai = Restriction On Word Order in a Free Word Order Language: the Case of the Sandawe Language." In Journal of Asian and African studies / Ajia Afuriku gengo bunka kenkyu, 40: 1-12.
  36. The long path: a case study of social change in Wahi, Singida District, Tanzania
    Jellicoe, Marguerite. 1978. "The Long Path: a Case Study of Social Change in Wahi, Singida District, Tanzania." East African Publ. House.
  37. Notes on the phonetics of Sandawe
    Copland, B.D. 1938. "Notes On the Phonetics of Sandawe." In Le maître phonétique, 53: 60-64.
  38. A Sandawe climbing rope
    Hunter, G. 1952. "A Sandawe Climbing Rope." In Tanganyika notes and records, 33: 93.
  39. Phonetic correspondences among Khoisan affricates
    Honken, Henry. 1988. "Phonetic Correspondences Among Khoisan Affricates." In New perspectives on the study of Khoisan, edited by Rainer Vossen. 47-65. Helmut Buske Verlag.
  40. Die Völker Afrikas
    Hirschberg, Walter. 1954. "Die Völker Afrikas." In Die neue grosse Völkerkunde, edited by Hugo Adolf Bernatzik. Bd 1: 279-564. Herkul.
  41. Gibt es eine Buschmannkultur?
    Hirschberg, Walter. 1933. "Gibt Es Eine Buschmannkultur?" In Zeits. für Ethnologie, 65: 119-136.
  42. A point of Sandawe law
    Hamp, E.P. 1962. "A Point of Sandawe Law." In Journal of African languages, 1: (?).
  43. Musical form in Sandawe góu and kerem’ta songs
    Godsey, Larry Dennis. 1975. "Musical Form in Sandawe Góu and Kerem’ta Songs."
  44. Some rock paintings of western USandawe
    Fozzard, P.M.H. 1966. "Some Rock Paintings of Western USandawe." In Tanzania notes and records, 65: 57-62.
  45. Some rock paintings in south and south-west Kondoa-Irangi District, Central Province
    Fozzard, P.M.H. 1959. "Some Rock Paintings in South and South-west Kondoa-Irangi District, Central Province." In Tanganyika notes and records, 52: 94-110.
  46. Tanganyika rock paintings
    Fosbrooke, Henry Albert, P. Ginner, Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey and Jane Fosbrooke. 1950. "Tanganyika Rock Paintings." In Tanganyika notes and records, 29: 1-61.
  47. Hadza and Sandawe genetic relations
    Fleming, Harold C. 1986. "Hadza and Sandawe Genetic Relations." In Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika (SUGIA), 7 , no. 2: 157-188.
  48. Information structure marking in Sandawe texts
    Eaton, Helen Catherine. 2010. "Information Structure Marking in Sandawe Texts." In The expression of information structure: a documentation of its diversity across Africa, edited by Ines Fiedler and Anne Schwarz. 1-34. John Benjamins Publ.
  49. Evaluating Claims of Distant Relationship
    Sands, Bonny. Evaluating Claims of Distant Relationship. PhD thesis, Los Angeles: University of California, 1995.
  50. The Languages of Tanzania
    1980. "The Languages of Tanzania." In Language in Tanzania, edited by E. C. Polomé and C. P. Hill. Oxford University Press.
  51. Die Schnalzsprachen
    Planert, W. 1926. "Die Schnalzsprachen." In Bibliotheca Africana, II: 296-315.
  52. Are the African Pygmies an Ethnographic Fiction?
    Roger Blench. 1999. "Are the African Pygmies An Ethnographic Fiction?" In Central African Hunter-Gatherers in a Multidisciplinary Perspective: Challenging Elusiveness, edited by Karen Biesboruck et al. 41-60. Netherlands: Research School of Asian, African and Amerindian Studies (CNWS), Universiteit Leiden.
  53. The Linguistic Situation of Tanzania
    Batibo, Herman M. 2000. "The Linguistic Situation of Tanzania." In Lugha za Tanzania/Languages of Tanzania: a study dedicated to the memory of the late Prof. C. Maganga, edited by K. K. Kahigi et al.. 89: 5-18. Leiden: CNWS.
  54. The Alagwa: a northern intrusion in a Tanzanian Khoi-San culture, as testified through Sandawe oral tradition
    Eric Ten Raa. 1986. "The Alagwa: a Northern Intrusion in a Tanzanian Khoi-San Culture, As Testified Through Sandawe Oral Tradition." In Contemporary studies on Khoisan: in honour of Oswin Köhler on the occasion of his 75th birthday, edited by Rainer Vossen and Klaus Keuthmann. v. 2: 271-299. Helmut Buske Verlag.
  55. Kxoe tone and Kxoe ‘jonctures’
    Edward Derek Elderkin. 1986. "Kxoe Tone and Kxoe ‘jonctures’." In Contemporary studies on Khoisan: in honour of Oswin Köhler on the occasion of his 75th birthday, edited by Rainer Vossen and Klaus Keuthmann. v. 1: 225-235. Helmut Buske Verlag.
  56. The linguistic relationship between Hadza and Khoisan
    Bonny Sands. 1998. "The Linguistic Relationship Between Hadza and Khoisan." In Language, identity and conceptualization among the Khoisan, edited by Mathias Schladt. 15: 266-283. Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  57. Lexikon der Afrikanistik: afrikanische Sprachen und ihre Erforschung
    Herrmann Jungraithmayr and Wilhelm Johann Georg Möhlig. 1983. "Lexikon Der Afrikanistik: Afrikanische Sprachen Und Ihre Erforschung." 351, 3 maps. Dietrich Reimer Verlag.
  58. Linguistic survey of the Northern Bantu borderland
    D. Forde. 1956. "Linguistic Survey of the Northern Bantu Borderland." Oxford University Press.
  59. A veterinary glossary of some tribal languages of Tanganyika Territory
    Greenway, P.J. 1947. "A Veterinary Glossary of Some Tribal Languages of Tanganyika Territory." In East African agricultural journal of Kenya, Tanganyika, Uganda and Zanzibar, 13: 237-244.
  60. The Non-Bantu languages of North-Eastern Africa
    Tucker, Archibald N. and Margaret A. Bryan. 1956. "The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa." III: Oxford University Press.
  61. Verbal plurality in Sandawe
    Kiessling, Roland. 2002. "Verbal Plurality in Sandawe." In Hamburger Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, 1: 59-90.
  62. A Classified Vocabulary of the Sandawe Language
    Kagaya, Ryohei. 1993. "A Classified Vocabulary of the Sandawe Language." 26: Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.
  63. A description of the phonology of the Sandawe language
    Hunziker, Daniel, Elisabeth Hunziker and Helen Catherine Eaton. 2008. "A Description of the Phonology of the Sandawe Language." SIL International.
  64. Illustrations of the IPA: Sandawe
    Eaton, Helen Catherine. 2006. "Illustrations of the IPA: Sandawe." In Journal of the International Phonetic Ass., 36 , no. 2: 235-242.
  65. A Grammar of Focus in Sandawe
    Eaton, Helen C. A Grammar of Focus in Sandawe. PhD thesis, University of Reading, 2002.
  66. The twelve modern Khoisan languages
    Matthias Brenzinger. 2011. "The Twelve Modern Khoisan Languages." In Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Khoisan Languages and Linguistics,
  67. The World Atlas of Language Structures
    2005. "The World Atlas of Language Structures." edited by Bernard Comrie et al. Oxford University Press.
  68. A Sandawe Dialect Survey
    Eaton, Helen, Daniel Hunziker and Elisabeth Hunziker. 2007. "A Sandawe Dialect Survey." In SIL Electronic Survey Reports, 2007-014: Online: http://www.sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2007-014.
    http://www.sil.org/silesr/abstract.asp?ref=2007-014
  69. A Sandawe grammar
    Eaton, Helen Catherine. 2010. "A Sandawe Grammar." 206. SIL International.
  70. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 16th Edition (2009)
    Lewis, M. Paul (ed.). 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 16 edn. http://www.ethnologue.com/home.asp. (15 February, 2011.)
    http://www.ethnologue.com/
  71. Die Sandawe: Linguistisches und ethnographisches Material aus Deutsch-Ostafrika
    Dempwolff, Otto. 1916. "Die Sandawe: Linguistisches Und Ethnographisches Material Aus Deutsch-Ostafrika." 34: L. Friederichsen &.
  72. Patterns of language shift in East Africa
    Brenzinger, Matthias. 1992. "Patterns of Language Shift in East Africa." In Language and society in Africa: the theory and practice of sociolinguistics, edited by Robert K. Herbert. 287-303. Witwatersrand Univ. Press.
  73. Die Sandawe: linguistisches und ethnographisches Material aus Deutsch-Ostafrika
    Dempwolff, Otto. 1916. "Die Sandawe: Linguistisches Und Ethnographisches Material Aus Deutsch-Ostafrika." v, 180. Friederichsen, De Gruyter & Co.
  74. Subject identification strategies and free word order in Sandawe
    Dalgish, Gerard Matthew. 1979. "Subject Identification Strategies and Free Word Order in Sandawe." In Studies in African linguistics, 10 , no. 3: 273-310.
  75. Durch Massailand zur Nilquelle: Reisen und Forschungen der Massaiexpedition
    Baumann, Oskar. 1894. "Durch Massailand Zur Nilquelle: Reisen Und Forschungen Der Massaiexpedition." xiii, 385, plates. Verlag von Dietrich Reimer.
  76. The linguistic situation of Tanzania
    Batibo, Herman M. 2000. "The Linguistic Situation of Tanzania." In Lugha za Tanzania / Languages of Tanzania: studies dedicated to the memory of Prof. Clement Maganga, edited by Kulikoyela Kanalwanda Kahigi et al.. 5-17.
  77. The peoples of the Happy Valley, East Africa [with an introduction by Sir Harry H. Johnston]
    Bagshawe, F.J. 1925. "The Peoples of the Happy Valley, East Africa [with An Introduction By Sir Harry H. Johnston]." In Journal of the African Soc., 24 , no. 95: 25-33.
  78. The peoples of the Happy Valley, East Africa, the aboriginal races of Kondoa Irangi, 3: the Sandawi
    Bagshawe, F.J. 1924/25. "The Peoples of the Happy Valley, East Africa, the Aboriginal Races of Kondoa Irangi, 3: the Sandawi." In Journal of the African Soc., 24: 219-227, 328-347.
  79. Archaeology and linguistic reconstructions of history in East Africa
    Ambrose, Stanley Harmon. 1982. "Archaeology and Linguistic Reconstructions of History in East Africa." In The archaeological and linguistic reconstruction of African history, edited by Christopher Ehret and Merrick Posnansky. 104-157. Univ. of California Press.
  80. Essai de grammaire et vocabulaire de la langue sandawe
    van De kimmenade, Martin. 1954. "Essai De Grammaire Et Vocabulaire De La Langue Sandawe." 9: l'Institut Anthropos.
  81. Clicks in East African languages
    Maddieson, Ian, Bonny Sands and Peter Ladefoged. 1999. "Clicks in East African Languages." In African Mosaic: Festschrift for J. A. Louw, edited by R. Finlayson. 59-91. University of South Africa Press.
  82. Tanzanian and Ugandan isolates
    Elderkin, E. D. 1982. "Tanzanian and Ugandan Isolates." In Nilotic Studies. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Languages and History of the Nilotic Peoples, edited by R. Vossen and M. Bechhaus-Gerst. 10: 499-521. Universität zu Köln, Institut für Afrikanistik.
  83. Endangered Languages Catalogue Project. Compiled by research teams at University of Hawai'i Mānoa and Institute for Language Information and Technology (LINGUIST List) at Eastern Michigan University
    2012. "Endangered Languages Catalogue Project. Compiled By Research Teams At University of Hawai'i Mānoa and Institute For Language Information and Technology (LINGUIST List) At Eastern Michigan University."
  84. Essai de grammaire et vocabulaire de la langue Sandawe
    Kimmenade, Martin van de. 1954. "Essai De Grammaire Et Vocabulaire De La Langue Sandawe." 9: Posieux: Anthropos Institut.
  85. The ecological basis for subsistence change among the Sandawe of Tanzania
    Newman, James L. 1970. "The Ecological Basis For Subsistence Change Among the Sandawe of Tanzania." Washington D. C.: National Academy of Sciences.
  86. Les Sandawe (Territoire du Tanganyika, Afrique)
    Kimmenade, Martin van de. 1936. "Les Sandawe (Territoire Du Tanganyika, Afrique)." In Anthropos, 31: 395-416.
  87. Hadza and Sandawe Genetic Relations
    Fleming, Harold C. 1986. "Hadza and Sandawe Genetic Relations." In Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 7 , no. 2: 157-187.
  88. Diachronic Inferences from Basic Sentence and Noun Structure in Central Khoisan and Sandawe
    Elderkin, E. D. 1986. "Diachronic Inferences From Basic Sentence and Noun Structure in Central Khoisan and Sandawe." In Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 7 , no. 2: 131-156.
  89. Tanzanian and Ugandan Isolates
    Elderkin, E. D. 1983. "Tanzanian and Ugandan Isolates." In Nilotic Studes: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Languages and History of the Nilotic Peoples, Cologne, January 4-6, 1982, edited by Rainer Vossen and Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst. 10: 499-521. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
  90. Proposals on Khoisan Reconstruction
    Ehret, Christopher. 1986. "Proposals On Khoisan Reconstruction." In Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 7 , no. 2: 105-130.
  91. Sandawe Grammar
    Eaton, Helen. 2008. "Sandawe Grammar."
  92. Die Sandawe: Linguistisches und ethnographisches Material aus Deutsch-Ostafrika
    Dempwolff, O. 1916. "Die Sandawe: Linguistisches Und Ethnographisches Material Aus Deutsch-Ostafrika." XXXIV: Hamburg: L. Friederichsen.
  93. The East African Click Languages: A Phonetic Comparison
    Tucker, A. N., M. A. Bryan and James Woodburn. 1977. "The East African Click Languages: A Phonetic Comparison." In Zur Sprachgeschichte und Ethnohistorie in Afrika: neue Beiträge afrikanistischer Forschungen (Herrn Prof.~Dr.~Oswin Köhler zur Vollendung des 65.~lebensjahres gewidmet von seinen Schülern, Freunden und Kollegen, edited by Wilhelm J. G. Möhlig et al.. 300-322. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.